For a long time, physicists assumed quantum teleportation wasn’t possible. In order to teleport an object, like our pig lizard, we must scan it to obtain precise information about its atomic structure. However, the more accurately an object is scanned, the more it is disturbed by the process of being scanned. We can’t measure a particle without altering it in some way, never mind every single subatomic particle that makes up a full-sized pig lizard. So how could we extract all the information we would need to create an exact copy in another location via teleportation?
In 1993, an IBM physicist named Charles Bennett and his colleagues figured out a way to work around this fundamental limitation using quantum entanglement, a strange connection between particles that even Einstein called “spooky.” Their method involves three particles: the particle to be teleported (A) and an entangled pair of other particles (B and C). First, B and C are entangled and sent to separate locations. B then interacts with A, and A’s information is transferred to B. Since B is still entangled with C, any information transferred to B is also transferred automatically to C without any need to transmit that information across physical space-time. C essentially turns into A, in the new location. (Source)